# Sky dome in practice is a hemisphere (left in orange), and the outer atmosphere is part of a sphere (right in orange): #1 In practice, what we have is on the left: a sky dome holding vertices of the sky and the position of the eye.

#2 What we want from #1, is getting the altitude and vertical angle ‘theta’ of the eye as shown on the right. So, how to get the right from the left??

#3 The simple answer of #2 is getting the value of the y axis of the eye position in the sky dome space as the altitude, and getting the vertical angle of the eye ray starting from the eye position in the sky dome’s space to a sky vertex. This would result in the following graph as the colors of the sky, and arise an problem: When the eye is located at the sky dome center, with a given field of view, i.e. fov, the fragment color is obtained by sampling the center of the fragment. This gives detailed sky color when the eye is looking towards the apex of the sky dome, and coarse sky color when looking towards the center of the sky dome, because of the ellipse-shaped sky is sampled evenly by the same-sized fragments. The color detail of the sky reduces as the the eye direction goes from the apex to the center. This situation applies the same when the eye is located above the sky dome center.

One solution to enrich the color details close to the center of the sky dome is sampling the fragments close to the center of the sky dome. The number of samples per fragment is proportional to the angle between the eye ray and the vertical axis, i.e. Y axis. However, sampling the fragment is optional as the quality of the sky color could be good enough with the regular sampling of the fragments in GLSL.

#4 With the discussion in #3, we can get the altitude and vertical angle of an eye ray by:

• #4.1 Transforming the eye position in world space to the sky-dome space
• #4.1.1 Compute the matrix transforming world-space point to the sky-dome space.
• #4.1.2 Multiply the eye position by the matrix to get the eye position in the sky-dome space.
• #4.2 Getting the eye ray in sky-dome space for a sky fragment
• #4.2.1 Subtract the eye position (in sky-dome space) by the position of the sky fragment (in sky-dome space)
• #4.2.2 Normalize the eye ray
• #4.3 Getting the altitude of the eye ray: the distance between the eye position and the origin of the sky-dome space (in sky-dome space)
• #4.4 Getting the vertical angle of the eye ray: the acosine value of the dot product of the eye ray (normalized, in sky-dome space) with the vertical axis (eye position in sky-dome space – origin of sky-dome space; normalized, in sky-dome space).

So far, the only problem left is computing the matrix as discussed in #4.1.1. The known facts are:

• Eye position in world space: X_e (x_e, y_e, z_e)
• Sky dome’s position in world space: X_s (x_s, y_s, z_s)
• Sky dome’s radius in world space: r

Then the eye position in the sky-dome space is: (X_e – X_s) / r. The sky-dome space shares the same directions of the axis of the world space. The result can be approached by the multiplication of a scaling matrix, S, and a translation matrix, T: ST. Where:

• T = [1, 0, 0, -x_s; 0, 1, 0, -y_s; 0, 0, 1, -z_s; 0, 0, 0, 1]
• S = [1/r, 0, 0, 0; 0, 1/r, 0, 0; 0, 0, 1/r, 0; 0, 0, 0, 1]
• Hence, ST = [1/r, 0, 0, -x_s/r; 0, 1/r, 0, -y_s/r; 0, 0, 1/r, -z_s/r; 0, 0, 0, 1]

T and S in this case is row major. With glsl the matrix should be converted to column major, which is:

• T =

[1, 0, 0, 0,

0, 1, 0, 0,

0, 0, 1, 0,

-x_s, -y_s, -z_s, 1]

• S =

[1/r, 0, 0, 0,

0, 1/r, 0, 0,

0, 0, 1/r, 0,

0, 0, 0, 1]

• ST =

[1/r, 0, 0, 0,

0, 1/r, 0, 0,

0, 0, 1/r, 0,

-x_s/r, -y_s/r, -z_s/r, 1]